Maternal Gift Economy: Breaking Through -
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Salon #12 - May 8, 2021

May 8, 2021 - 4:00PM-6:00PM GMT / 11:00AM-1:00PM US CT

Pilwha Chang and Tracy Gary

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Pilwha Chang

Presentation title: How to do Gift economy in fundraising?

Within a half century, South Korea has changed from one of the poorest countries to a large trading country ranking 10th to 12th in the world.

This rapid change, along with competitive market forces and technological innovations, has created deepened gaps in class, gender, generation, worldviews, lifestyles, etc. The extent to which people feel the pressure and stress to survive in the increasingly dehumanizing environment is shown in the dramatic demographic change and best shown in its world lowest birth rate. The one-member household takes up 30% of total households and more than half of young generation think it is ok not to have children.

Introducing 'maternal thinking', 'motherer' to younger generation is definitely a challenging task. Increasing unemployment rates, and the growing gap between haves and have nots make women and men in their 20s and 30s insecure and despondent. Rampant misogyny and antifeminist attacks in real and cyber spaces affect women of all ages. Against this backdrop, I will discuss the opportunities and challenges of Korea Foundation for Women. As the environment changed greatly in the last two decades of the KFW’s existence, it is important to raise questions of how to introduce the ideas and practice of the gift economy in fund raising activities.

Pilwha Chang - Born in 1951 in the middle of Korean war. The meaning of her given name, pilwha, can be translated as ‘Peace Necessary’ reflecting the spirit of the era. She is an academic activist, teacher, and adviser to policy makers. As the first professor in Women’s Studies at Ewha Womans University, she has been searching to find new paths in inter-transdisciplinary research and training. As a feminist she tried to lead everyday life experimenting feminist ways of building communities and relationships. As an Asian, she spearheaded global empowerment programmes for young feminist activists in the same university. As a newcomer in fundraising field, she joined the Korean Foundation for Women as Chair of board.

Tracy Gary

Presentation title: Inspiring Feminist Philanthropy: how women & girls world-wide are leveraging gifts and resourcefulness

What is the women funding movement, when did it start and why? What has it accomplished so far? What is it’s impact on gender and racial justice and consciousness for all genders and communities? Is it part of the gift economy and how? What have been its challenges and limitations? Where has it failed by matriarchal standards? What have been its breakthroughs?

Tracy Gary is a catalyst for generosity, economic, racial and gender justice, and a global citizen seeking caring partners for a better world. She is a non profit entrepreneur who with others sparked the women’s funding movement, now over 190 Womens funds world-wide and with a social justice framework in many others. She has started 24 non profits including her latest, Earth Legacy Alliance, always with a team. She lives outside San Francisco and specializes in growing and supporting women donor leadership. She’s the author of “Inspired Philanthropy: Creating A Giving Plan & Leaving a Legacy” (Jossey Bass, 2008, 3rd edition)

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Salon #13 - May 22, 2021

May 22, 2021 - 4:00PM-6:00PM GMT / 11:00AM-1:00PM US CT

Darcia Narvaez, PhD and Mary Tarsha, MEd, MA

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Darcia Narvaez, PhD

Presentation title: Mothering as Manner, Content and Community

What is mothering? It is a gift of nurturing through manner and content. The manners of mothering include presence, attunement, spontaneous responsiveness to need, and growing relational knowing of the child. Mothering is always backed by the nurturing of mother by the community. The content of our species’ evolved nurturing includes provision by the community of the Evolved Nest: Calm and connected gestation; Soothing birth and immediate post birth; On-request breastfeeding; Welcoming social climate: Affectionate touch; Self-directed social play; Multiple alloparents; Responsive relationships; Nature immersion and connection; Healing practices. The mother is the first giver to a child and her gifts are stronger or more abundant under conditions of a gift community around her. But the child is also raised by the gifts of mothering offered from the community.

Darcia Narvaez - Professor Emerita of Psychology, University of Notre Dame, researches moral development and human flourishing from an interdisciplinary perspective, integrating anthropology, neuroscience, clinical, developmental and educational sciences. She grew up living around the world as a bilingual/bicultural Puerto Rican but calls the earth her home. Dr. Narvaez’s current research explores how early life experience influences wellbeing and moral character in children and adults. She has numerous publications, including more than 20 books such as Indigenous Sustainable Wisdom: First Nation Know-how for Global Flourishing; Basic Needs, Wellbeing and Morality: Fulfilling Human Potential and Embodied Morality: Protectionism, Engagement and Imagination. A recent book, Neurobiology and the Development of Human Morality: Evolution, Culture and Wisdom won national and international awards. She is president of, blogs for Psychology Today (“Moral Landscapes”) and hosts the webpage Also see

Mary Tarsha, MEd, MA

Presentation title: Mothering and the Neurobiology of the Child

Mary S. Tarsha As Gen Vaughan says, the child’s body “is the result of mothering and being mothered” (Vaughan 2015, p. 38). I discuss research on the effects of mothering manner (e.g., presence; attunement/responsiveness) and content (evolved nest) on young children’s neurobiology. Advances in developmental psychobiological research demonstrate that dynamic interactions between the child and the caregiving environment (mothering and the Evolved Nest) shape children’s biological processes. For example, the autonomic nervous system and the vagus nerve are critical neurobiological components of self-regulation, attention, emotion, communication, relational attachment and social behavior. The oxytocinergic system is also a critical component in developing and maintaining social bonds and may impact stress-coping and global health. Together, these systems serve as neurobiological building blocks of social and moral behavior.

Also discussed jointly by Narvaez and Tarsha are the effects of mothering on sociality and morality. Well-mothered individuals tend to be relationally flexible and attuned, using their gifts to enhance the wellbeing of the community. They form a neurobiology of peaceableness. Undermothered individuals tend to be more relationally self-protective (oppositional and/or withdrawn), less empathic and less socially flexible. In adulthood, they can become vicious (controlling or hurtful toward others) or relationally, emotionally and morally detached.

Mary S. Tarsha is a doctoral student in the Kroc International Institute for Peace Studies and the Department of Psychology at University of Notre Dame. She investigates the neurobiology of moral development, including peaceableness, cooperation, and prosocial/antisocial morality with a particular focus on how early life facilitates (or not) the biosocial construction of wellbeing and sociomorality, specifically the mechanisms of action by which the Evolved Developmental Niche (or Evolved Nest) promotes human flourishing and peaceable children, families and societies. Her work has been published in the International Journal of Partnership Studies, Peace Studies Review, Frontiers in Psychology, Development Psychobiology, Family Relations and numerous books. She is on the board of Kindred World and a contributor to

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